Lynnhaven Bay ~ Liner Notes

Drowsy Maggie / Morrison's Jig ~ "Drowsy Maggie" is a reel that is anything but drowsy and is probably most famous for being one of the tunes played in the steerage party scene in the movie Titanic.  Even prior to its film debut, it was a well established traditional session tune.  James Morrison is one of a handful of Irish musicians who, by recording the music of his native Ireland, helped to revitalize Irish music in America during the 1920s and 30s.  Among many other tunes, Morrison recorded a jig known both as "The Stick Across the Hob" and "Maurice Carmody's Favorite."  Despite these two well documented names, the tune became associated with Morrison and is now known far and wide as "Morrison's Jig."

Cold and Raw ~ Also known as "The Scotch-man Out-witted by the Country Damsel," it is a popular song dating to the mid 17th century.  Associated with Henry Purcell (1659–1695), it is one of the few Celtic or British seduction songs in which the lady in question shows any common sense, which is one reason we like it.  One story goes that Purcell and the celebrated singer, Arabella Hunt, were performing a concert of Purcell's music for Queen Mary II, who, with her husband, William III, endowed the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia.  After listening to several of Purcell's compositions, the Queen asked Hunt if she would sing the ballad "Cold and Raw."  Purcell was initially miffed that the Queen preferred a folk song to his own works, but later used the tune as the basis for a birthday ode composed for the Queen in 1692.

Cold and Raw

Cold and raw the North did blow, bleak in the morning early;
All the hills were covered in snow, dagled by winter yearly.
As I was riding o'er a knough I met with a farmer's daughter;
Rosie cheeks and bonny brow, it made my heart to falter.

Down I vailed my bonnet low, meaning to show my breeding;
She returned a courteous bow, a visage far exceeding.
I asked her where she went so soon and longed to begin a parley
She said unto the next market town, her purpose to sell her barley.

In this purse, sweet soul, said I, twenty pounds lie fairly;
Seek no farther one to buy for I'll take all thy barley.
If twenty pounds could buy delight thy person I love so dearly,
If thou would lie with me all night go home in the morning early.

If twenty pounds could buy the globe, quoth she, this I'd not do, sir.
Were my kin as poor as Job, I would not raise them so, sir.
Should I be tonight your friend we'd get a young kid together
You'd be gone ere the nine months end and where should I find a father?

I told her I had wedded been, fourteen years and longer.
Else I'd choose her for my queen and tie the knot much stronger.
She bid me then no farther roam but manage my wedlock fairly;
And keep purse for my spouse at home some other shall have her barley.

Duke of Kent's Waltzes ~ The waltz had begun to appear in Europe by the late 18th century, making its way from Austria and France, and then to England and America.  It created a furor along the way as it was considered by many to be a scandalous dance form with far too much physical contact and whirling about to be safe.  The waltz melodies themselves were first used as variations in traditional cotillions and contra dances, and that was likely where these two waltzes were first heard.  The first of this pair is from W. M. Cahusac's Annual Collection of Twelve Favorite Country Dances from 1801, and the second was composed by John Payne in 1807.  The particular Duke of Kent for whom they were named was Edward Augustus (1767-1820), the fourth son of King George III, and the father of Queen Victoria.  He served as commander-in-chief of the British forces in Canada from 1799 to 1800 and was the first member of the royal family to actually live in North America.

Planxty Fanny Poer / Trip to Kilburn / Newcastle ~ Turlough O'Carolan (1670-1738) was the famous harper who relied upon the generosity of patrons after being blinded by smallpox around age 18.  Fanny was a member of the Poer family in Ireland, a family who helped to sponsor O'Carolan.  "Trip to Kilburn" and "Newcastle" both come from a collection of music called The English Dancing Master, a popular source in the late 1600s and early 1700s for dance music as well as instructions for the dance steps.  The music was collected by John Playford in London and carried on by his family for several decades.

Perry's Victory / Madison's Whim ~ Since this project developed around the bicentennial of the War of 1812, we felt it appropriate to include a few musical selections concerning this period in America's history.  "Perry's Victory" references a naval battle of the War of 1812 in which Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry (1785-1819) was commander of the American fleet that defeated and captured six vessels of the British Navy during the Battle of Lake Erie on September 10, 1813.  This is one of several tunes and songs written in praise of Perry.  "Madison's Whim" appears in John Carr's First Book of Cotillions from 1801.  We assume that the title is referring to James Madison, fourth president of the United States, Father of the Constitution and key author of the Bill of Rights.  If not, it should be.  In 1813, Madison received a gift of a crystal flute crafted by Claude Laurent of Paris.  Whether Madison actually played the flute is a matter of speculation, though it would not be surprising, as the flute was a very popular gentleman's instrument during the early 19th century.  This crystal flute is now part of the Dayton C. Miller Collection at the Library of Congress and is occasionally let out for concerts by renowned artists, which, as yet, has not included us. 1

The Ash Grove ~ The melody for "The Ash Grove" was first published in 1802 in a collection called The Bardic Museum, under the name "Llwyn-onn," with a note that this was "The name of Mr. Jones's mansion, near Wrexham in Denbighshire."  Several sets of lyrics have been set to this tune, and for this rendition, we chose a lesser known version written in Welsh by Bessie Orwig Jones and translated into English by A.G. Prys-Jones.  We have been told that this tune was a favorite of Martha Washington, but this is doubtful since she passed away the same year it was published.  We have played it so frequently at Mount Vernon, however, that it has become a favorite of one of our friends, Anna Cosner, former Manager of Special Events at Mount Vernon, and we would like to dedicate this recording of the tune to her.  The flute harmony part in this arrangement is used by permission of its composer, Matt Seattle, taken from his book, Airs for Pairs.

The Ash Grove

The new moon was rising above the old oak tree
As I stood awaiting the voice of my love,
The red sun had set in the deeps of the ocean,
And I was alone in the glade of Ash Grove.
How white were the homesteads that lay all around me,
How rich were their acres midst hillock and height!
I knew every cottage, each woodland and pathway
Where sweethearts come walking and talking at night.

O keen was my vigil from dawn until twilight,
How slowly long hours passed out of my ken!
But I was so happy and yet so distressful,
My heart and my mind dwelling only on him.
My waiting grew anxious as wings on the evening
Enfolded that landscape so perfect for love:
But when he drew near me to kiss me and cheer me,
All time ceased to be in the glade of Ash Grove.

Indian Queen / Gathering Peascods ~ These are two more melodies from the Playford collections of the latter half of the 17th century.

Road to Lisdoonvarna / Haste to the Wedding / Jump the Broom ~ We refer to this group of tunes as The Wedding Set because it is a trio of jigs with connotations of courtship and marriage. "The Road to Lisdoonvarna" references the town of Lisdoonvarna in County Clare, Ireland, which was once the site of an annual matchmaking fair.  "Haste to the Wedding," or "Rural Felicity," began its career as a song in the 1767 pantomime, The Elopement.  We have paired these two traditional tunes with an original tune by our own Bob Clark called "Jump the Broom," which refers to a wedding ritual common to several different cultural traditions, especially the African slave and Celtic communities.  Slaves were considered property and were not allowed to legally marry, so, in lieu of a marriage license, they used the jumping over a broom as a symbol of the couple's commitment to each other.

Your Hay it is Mow'd / Dance for the Haymakers ~ Having become fans of Purcell, we have also paired excerpts from two of his operas. "Your Hay it is Mow'd" is from King Arthur, which Purcell set in 1691 to a libretto by John Dryden.  For this piece, we are joined by several friends in an attempt to sound like a pub full of complaining farmers.  This drinking song is followed by an instrumental trio arrangement of "Dance for the Haymakers," which is the closing piece of the third act of The Fairy Queen, a 1692 opera based on A Midsummer Night's Dream.

Your Hay It is Mow'd

Your hay it is mow'd, and your corn is reap'd;
Your barns will be full, and your hovels heap'd.
Come, boys, come; Come, boys, come;
And merrily roar out our harvest home.

We've cheated the parson, we'll cheat him again,
For why should a blockhead have one in ten?
One in ten, one in ten,
For why should a blockhead have one in ten?

For prating so long like a book-learn'd sot,
Till pudding and dumpling are burnt to pot,
Burnt to pot, burnt to pot,
Till pudding and dumpling are burnt to pot.

We'll toss off our ale till we cannot stand,
And heigh for the honour of Old England:
Old England, Old England,
And heigh for the honour of Old England.

Hull's Victory / Old 1812 ~ Captain Isaac Hull (1773-1843) was commander of the USS Constitution, which later became known as "Old Ironsides." In August of 1812, the Constitution defeated the British frigate HMS Guerriere.  The Guerriere had been notorious for harassing American ships and this victory early in the war not only shocked the British Admiralty, but also inspired the Americans and the as yet unproven American Navy.  For this arrangement of "Hull's Victory," we are grateful to Carol D. Greenfield for use of the harmony line from her collection, The Fifer'sDelightful Companion, a book of harmony parts that accompanies The Fifer's Delight by Ralph Sweet.  "Welcome Here Again" is a Scottish reel dating back at least to the mid-18th century.  It was a popular fife and marching tune in the American colonies and remained so throughout the American Civil War, by which time it had been rechristened as "Old 1812," or "The 1812 Quickstep."

Captain Nathaniel Colley / Water Under the Keel / Lynnhaven Bay ~ We created another medley of three jigs we call the Lynnhaven Bay Set, and it opens with another of Bob's compositions entitled, "Captain Nathaniel Colley." Nathaniel Colley was the captain of the Clermont, the ship that brought Thomas Jefferson home to Virginia from Europe after five years as Minister to France.  Dumas Malone, the distinguished Jefferson scholar, in his book, Jefferson and the Rights of Man, identified Nathaniel Colley as a Norfolk native, and Jefferson called Colley a "bold" sailor.  The second tune is "Water Under the Keel" and is the third movement of Shaun Davey's large scale work The Brendan Voyage.  It was originally written for uilleann pipes and orchestra and performed by Liam O'Flynn.  Our fiddler, Paul, had learned the tune from O'Flynn's playing and composed "Lynnhaven Bay" to follow it.  We thought the tunes flowed nicely from one to the next, but we found yet another connection that tied them together.  Upon arriving within sight of Virginia, the Clermont ran into fog and was forced to drop anchor in Lynnhaven Bay, just west of Cape Henry at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay.  The Clermont docked in Norfolk around midday on November 23, 1789 where Jefferson was greeted as the very first Secretary of State under President George Washington.

There is another interesting twist to this story found between pages 233 and 237 in the Norfolk Borough Register, 1783 - 1790, said book being on file in the Clerk's Office of the Circuit Court of the City of Norfolk, Virginia.  After docking, Jefferson and his party, which included his two daughters, Patsy and Polly, and two family slaves, brother and sister James and Sally Heming, took their first steps on American soil on the Norfolk waterfront after several years in Europe.  After checking into Lindsay's Hotel, Jefferson discovered that the Clermont caught fire at the dock side shortly after their departure.  The fire destroyed a good portion of the Jefferson cabin, but the crew members were able to retrieve his belongings, including state papers and files, and haul them to safety.  The next day, November 24, 1789, those crew members, Nathaniel Colley (Master), Robert Baggess (Mate), Joseph Johnson (Boatswain) and David Jackson (Carpenter) appeared before Robert Taylor, Mayor of the Borough of Norfolk, to give their official account of the fire on board the Clermont.   According to their testimony, they discovered fire in the cabin and store room that raged so violently as to prevent them from getting too close.  They had to knock away the bulkhead and scuttle the quarter deck in several locations and, with the assistance of nearby citizens, they were able to control and extinguish the fire.  The result was extensive damage to the cabin and store room, along with its contents, and the quarter deck.  The captain and crew also requested an appraisal of the damages in order to get the ship repaired.  The mayor sent Hillary Butt, Henry Braithewait and George Whytock to assess the damage and their report stated:  "In Obedience of the above Order, We the Subscribers did repair on board the Brig Clermont Captain Nathaniel Colley and took a Survey of the Damages which said Brig has sustained by fire and we are of Opinion that it will Cost One hundred and Thirty Five pounds to put her in the same situation that she was in when she arrived in this harbor…"

Here's a Health to the Company ~ "Here's a Health to the Company" is one of the hundreds of emigration songs from the 18th & 19th centuries.  Emigration was one of the dominant themes of Irish and Scottish life and while this song is fairly light and heartwarming, emigration was often referred to as the "American wake" and was a permanent parting of friends and family.  "Here's a Health" is a shorter version of a nineteenth century song known as "The Emigrant's Farewell to Donside," likely from Aberdeen, Scotland.  In John Ord's  Bothy Songs And Ballads, the notes say: "This song was sung at a social gathering at Corriehoul, Corgarff, Aberdeenshire, in 1836 by a Mr. Charles Michie, prior to his emigrating to America.  His friends long believed it to have been composed by himself, but Mr. Jonathan Gauld, Edinburgh, who sent it to me by special request, informs me that he has discovered it is much older than Michie's time, and that he simply altered some of the verses to suit his own case.  Mr. Gavin Greig, M.A., ex-President Buchan Field Club, kindly arranged the music for me." 9 The person writing this was John Ord, one of several Scottish folksong collectors of the late 19th century.  During his lifetime, Ord was actually more well known as a Superintendent in the Glasgow police force, and aside from a few articles, Bothy Songs and Ballads is his only major written work.

Here's a Health or Kind Friends and Companions

Kind friends and companions, come join me in rhyme
Come lift up your voices in chorus with mine
Come drink and be merry, all grief to refrain
For we may or might never all meet here again

Chorus
Here's a health to the company and one to my lass
Let's drink and be merry all out of one glass
Let's drink and be merry, all grief to refrain
For we may or might never all meet here again

Here's a health to the wee lad that I love so well
For his style and for beauty, there's none can excel
There's a smile on his countenance as I sit on his knee
Sure there's no one in the wide world as happy as me

Our ship lies in harbor and it's ready to dock
I wish her safe landing without any shock
And if ever we meet again by land or by sea
I will always remember your kindness to me
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Cover image and details:  Joshua Shaw, American (ca. 1777-1860),
John Hill, Engraver, British (1770-1850),
Lynnhaven Bay, 1820, Engraving on paper, 15 x 15 5/16 in.,
Chrysler Museum of Art, Norfolk, VA, Museum purchase, 48.35.1,
Photo by Ed Pollard, Museum Photographer
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Works Cited

1.  Block, Melissa. Madison's Crystal Flute. NPR. 16 Mar. 2001. Morning Edition. Web. <http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1120053>.

2.  D'Urfey, Thomas. Wit and Mirth; Or, Pills to Purge Melancholy; Being a Collection of the Best Merry Ballads and Songs, Old and New. Fitted to All Humours, Having Each Their Proper Tune for Either Voice, or Instrument; Most of the Songs Being New Set ... N.p.: n.p., 1876.

3.  Jones, Edward. The Bardic Museum, of Primitive British Literature; and Other Admirable Rarities; Forming the Second Volume of the Musical, Poetical, and Historical, and Historical Relicks of the Welsh Bards and Druids, Containing, the Bardic Triads; Historic Odes; Eulogies; Songs; Elegies; Memorials of the Tombs of the Warriors; of King Arthur and His Knights; Regalias; the Wonders of Wales, Et Cætera: With English Translations an Historic Illustrations: Likewise, the Ancient War-tunes of the Bards, to These National Melodies Are Added New Basses; with Variations,. London: Printed by A. Strahan, for the Author, 1802. The Internet Archive. 24 Mar. 2009. Web. 24 Jan. 2013.

4.  "Jumping the Broom." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 13 Jan. 2013. Web. 15 Jan. 2013.

5.  Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Rights of Man. Boston: Little, Brown, 1967.

6.  Matthews, Ceri Rhys. "Yscolan. Flute Music." : Llwyn Onn. Ceri Rhys Matthews, 11 Mar. 2006. Web. 27 Sept. 2012. <http://yscolan.blogspot.com/2006/03/llwyn-onn.html>.

7.  McGuinn, Roger. "Roger McGuinn's Folk Den." Blog Archive - Perry'€™s Victory. N.p., 1 Sept. 2006. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. <http://www.ibiblio.org/jimmy/folkden-wp/?p=7078>.

8.  Northcote, Sydney, and Evan Thomas. Davies. Caneuon Cenedlaethol Cymru = The National Songs of Wales . London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1959.

9.  Ord, John. The Bothy Songs of Aberdeen, Banff and Moray. Glasgow: Brown and Ferguson., 1927.

10.  Price, Curtis Alexander. Henry Purcell and the London Stage. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire: Cambridge UP, 1984.

11.  "Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 15 Jan. 2013.

12.  Skiba, Bob. "La Valse." THE PHILADELPHIA DANCE HISTORY JOURNAL. N.p., 29 Apr. 2012. Web. 28 Jan. 2013.

13.  Smith, Janet L. "Music Professor Plays Crystal Flute." Montpelier Spring (2001): n. pag. Montpelier. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jmu.edu/montpelier/issues/spring01/flute.htm>.

14.  Spring, Ian. "Robert Ford and John Ord: Two Folksong Collectors from Glasgow." Textualities. Main Point Books, 8 Lauriston Street, Edinburgh. Scotland EH3 9DJ, 2006. Web. 19 Apr. 2013. <http://textualities.net/ian-spring/robert-ford-and-john-ord-two-folksong-collectors-from-glasgow/>

15.  Stewart, James. "The TuneIndex: Bibliography." Ceolas: TuneIndex Bibliography. Ceolas, n.d. Web. 18 Jan. 2013.

16.  "TTA." The Traditional Tune Archive. Andrew Kuntz & Valerio Pelliccioni, 15 Feb. 2012. Web. 27 Sept. 2012. <http://www.tunearch.org/wiki/TTA>.

17.  Waltz, Robert. "The Traditional Ballad Index:." The Ballad Index. California State University, Fresno, Folklore, 2011. Web. 04 Oct. 2012. <http://www.fresnostate.edu/folklore/BalladIndexTOC.html>.

18.  Wilkin, Davil W. "The Things That Catch My Eye." The Things That Catch My Eye. N.p., 26 Nov. 2011. Web. 15 Jan. 2013.

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