Apples in Winter ~ Liner Notes

Christmas Day Ida Mornin' / Masters in This Hall / In Dulci Jubilo ~ "Christmas Day Ida Mornin'" is attributed to Friedemann Stickle, a famous Shetland fiddler of the 18th and early 19th centuries. The Shetland Islands were part of Scandinavia until 1469 when they were pawned to Scotland as part of a royal marriage arrangement. Scandinavian influences still remain in the language, names and music. "The seasonal changes were usually marked with 'foys' (feasts or celebrations) of one kind or another, and for a month following the winter solstice - a period known as the 'Helli-days of Yule' - the gloom of Winter would be kept at bay with as much feasting and jollification, including dancing, as could be afforded." 3 Stickle was paid to play this tune every year on Christmas morning in the hall of his laird, the Laird of Muness. The late Sheltland fiddler, collector and teacher, Tom Anderson, stated that Stickle had composed the tune on the road from his croft at Burrafirth to Buness, and also remembered that Stickle was called 'Stumpie' because he walked with a limp. It is possible that the tune's rhythm reflects the rhythm of Stickle's walk. The tune for "Masters in this Hall" was originally a French contredanse "La Matelotte," written in 1703 by Raoul-Augur Feuillet. It appeared in English translation in 1710 as "The Female Saylor," the name which English country dancers still use today. Around 1860, William Morris used the tune for his carol "Master in this Hall," which tells the nativity story as news brought from over the sea. "In Dulci Jubilo" is among the oldest and most famous of the "macaronic" songs, one which combines Latin and a vernacular language in the same song. It is said to have come in a dream to the 14th century German mystic and Dominican monk, Heinrich of Suso. In his vision, he saw angels gathering around and dancing with him as they sang the carol. It quickly became, and has remained, one of the most well-known of all Christmas tunes, having been set to numerous English and German carols through the centuries. The modern English words, "Good Christian Men Rejoice," were written in the mid-19th century by the Reverend Dr. John Mason Neale.

Please to See the King / The Wren ~ The first song in this set, "Please to See the King," comes from Pembrokeshire in Wales, where (unusually for wren songs) it was sung on Twelfth Night. 9 The wren is featured in several legends from throughout the British Isles, where it is known as the "king of birds." Legend has it that the birds all decided that whichever of them could fly the highest would be named king. Not surprisingly, the eagle quickly soared above the rest, but just as he began to descend, a tiny wren, which had been hiding on the eagle's back, flew out and up even higher and so received the crown. It may be that the bit of trickery the wren used to claim his title set him up for karmic retribution because he has been in trouble ever since. One of the oldest stories places the bird with Irish soldiers who were raiding a Viking camp during the 8th century. The wren began eating breadcrumbs which had been left on the head of a drum. The beating of its beak sounded the drum, which woke the Viking sentry, who sounded the alarm and alerted the camp in time to fight off the raid. The Irish blamed the bird for their defeat and have been persecuting it ever since. A later legend features St. Stephen, who was trying to hide in a bush to escape his enemies. A wren, which was nesting in the same bush, began singing and betrayed Stephen's hiding place. Fans of St. Stephen apparently decided that for this, the wren deserved to be hunted down and stoned to death just like the saint. So, traditionally on St. Stephen's day (December 26th), the men and boys of a town would dress up in scarecrow like costumes, capture and kill a wren, and go about town begging for alms to bury the bird. It was generally known that the money they collected was not actually used for a funeral, but to buy food and drink for a party. Wren marches persist even today in many parts of Ireland, though, thankfully, the wrens are no longer killed, and the collected monies are used for school or community projects.

Please to See the King

Joy, health, love, and peace, be to you in this place.
By your leave we will sing, concerning our king.

Our king is well drest, In silks of the best,
With his ribbons so rare, No king can compare.

In his coach he does ride with a great deal of pride,
And with four footmen to wait upon him.

We were four at watch, and all nigh of a match,
And with powder and ball we fired at his hall.

We have travell'd many miles, over hedges and stiles,
To find you this king which we now to you bring.

Now Christmas is past, Twelfth Day is the last.
Th' Old Year bids adieu, Great joy to the new.

"The Wren" is a traditional Irish version, arranged here with a bridge written by our hammered dulcimer player, Bob Clark.

The Wren

The wren, oh the wren, is the king of all birds,
On St. Stephen's Day, he was caught in the furze,
Although he is little, his family is great,
I pray good landlady give us a treat.

And if you draw it of the best,
I hope in heaven your soul will rest,
But if you draw it of the small,
It won't agree with the wren boys at all.

I have a little box here under me arm,
A tuppence or penny will do it no harm,
For we are the boys who came your way,
To bring in the wren on St.Stephen's Day.

As I went out to hunt and all,
I met with a wren who was up on the wall,
Twas up with me wattle and gave him a fall,
And I brought him here to show you all.

Please good Missus won't you give us a treat,
A big lump of pudding or some Christmas cake,
A plate full o'meat and a hot cup of tea,
Then we'll all be going on our way.

The wren, oh the wren, is the king of all birds,
On St. Stephens day, he was caught in the furze,
So it's up with the kettle and down with the pan,
Won't you give us a penny for to bury the wren.

Carol for New Year's Day ~ This carol is set to the familiar tune of "Greensleeves." This lovely tune has a long and interesting history, though in the interest of keeping the record straight, there is no documentation supporting the rumor that it was written by King Henry VIII. It was first published by Richard Jones in 1580 (over 30 years after Henry's death), was danced in the court of Queen Elizabeth I, mentioned repeatedly by Shakespeare, and has survived through multiple incarnations as a love song, dance, and hymn tune. "Carol for New Year's Day" is one of its earlier adaptations, printed under the title "The Old Year Now Is Fled" in the collection New Christmas Carrols in 1642. It is fortunate for us that the 1642 collection was published when it was, since a mere two years later, Oliver Cromwell enforced an Act of Parliament which banned Christmas and all other holiday celebrations.

Carol for New Year's Day

The old year now away is fled
The new year it is entered,
Then let us now our sins down tread
And joyfully all appear.
Let's merry be this holiday
Come let us run with sport and play.
Hang sorrow! Cast care away
God send you a happy new year!

And now, with new-year's gifts each friend
Unto each other they do send,
God grant we may our lives amend,
And that the truth may appear.
Now, like the snake, cast off your skin
Of evil thoughts, and wicked sin,
And to amend this new year begin,
God send us a merry new year!

And now let all the company
In friendly manner all agree,
For we are here welcome, all may see
Unto this jolly good cheer.
I thank my master and my dame,
To which are founders of the same.
To eat, to drink now is no shame,
God send us a merry new year!

Chestnut / Hole in the Wall / Parson's Farewell ~ Colonial Christmas celebrations in the 18th century differed greatly from our modern holiday, even in those practices that we think of as "traditional." The Christmas tree and decorations, cards and extensive gift-giving all developed during the mid to late 19th century. Colonial era customs also differed greatly throughout the colonies. In New England, the Calvinist Puritans and Protestants completely outlawed any observance of Christmas, considering it a pagan (or at least Catholic) holiday. In Virginia, however, the Christmas season was a time for visiting, parties, dinners, and most of all, balls. Dancing was by far the most popular form of entertainment for young and old, and an integral part of social life. Children would begin learning to dance at an early age, and adults would also take instruction from local or itinerant dancing masters in order to learn the latest dances and steps. Dancing instruction also included lessons in essential social skills, deportment and manners. These three tunes are from various editions of The English Dancing Master, first published by John Playford in 1651 with new editions until 1728. The combined volumes contained instructions and music for hundreds of dances, many of which are still in use today. "Chestnut" (aka "The Dove's Figary") is from the first Playford edition in 1651. "Hole in the Wall" appeared in 1698, and is one of several tunes written by Henry Purcell (1659-1695) that were used by contemporary dance masters for newly written dances. "Parson's Farewell" also appeared in the 1651edition of Playford, though the tune had been included in manuscripts of lute music as early as 1600.15

Il Est Ne Le Divin Enfant / Bring a Torch, Jeanette, Isabella ~ In "Il Est Ne," we are blending the well-known French chorus with English verses. The French text of this carol was first published in 1875, though the tune is older, and may be based on an old Normandy hunting tune, "Tete bizarde."

Il Est Ne Le Divin Enfant

Chorus: Il est ne, le divin Enfant,
Jouez, hautbois, resonnez, musettes.
Il est ne, le divin Enfant;
Chantons tous son avenement!

Through long ages of the past,
Prophets have foretold his coming.
Through long ages of the past,
Now the time has come at last.

Oh, how lovely, oh, how pure.
Is this perfect child of heaven.
Oh, how lovely, oh, how pure,
Gracious gift of humankind.

Jesus, Lord of all the earth,
Coming as a child among us.
Jesus, Lord of all the earth,
Grant to us our heav'nly peace.

The tune for "Bring a Torch, Jeanette, Isabella" was originally a 14th century ritournelle, a lively court dance in 3/4 time. The words first appeared with this tune in Cantiques de Premiere Advenement de Jesus-Christ, a collection of Christmas music published in 1553.

Bring a Torch, Jeanette, Isabella

Bring a torch, Jeanette, Isabella
Bring a torch, to the cradle run!
It is Jesus good folk of the village;
Christ is born and Mary's calling;
Ah! ah! beautiful is the mother.
Ah! ah! beautiful is her son.

It is wrong when the Child is sleeping
It is wrong to talk so loud;
Silence, all, as you gather around.
Lest your noise should waken Jesus.
Hush! hush! See how fast he slumbers.
Hush! hush! See how fast he sleeps.

Softly to the little stable
Softly in a moment come;
Look and see how charming is Jesus
How he is white, his cheeks are rosy.
Hush! hush! See how the child is sleeping.
Hush! hush! See how he smiles in his dreams.

Carolan's Welcome ~ Ireland's most famous harper and composer, Turlough O'Carolan (1670-1738), wrote hundreds of tunes, some 300 of which have survived. Most were composed for and named after his patrons, though a few, such as this one, came down with no name and were subsequently titled by the collectors who transcribed them. This tune was first taken down by William C. Forde (1795-1850), an early Irish musicologist who collected tunes from counties Munster, Sligo, Leitrim, Galway, Roscommon and Mayo. Forde was unable to gather the funds to publish his collection during his lifetime and so this tune remained unprinted until P.W. Joyce included in it his Old Irish Folk Music and Songs in 1909. This tune has no particular connections to Christmas or the winter season. We included it just because we like it so much.

Auld Lang Syne ~ It was a common practice in the 18th century to write new words to an established melody, and that is the case here. Robert Burns wrote his words, published in Johnson's Scots Musical Museum in 1796/97, to an old tune, to which Allan Ramsay had written his own words around 1720. Burns' publisher, a Mr. Thomson in Edinburgh, had a habit of disregarding the instructions given him, and he published Burns' new words with a different tune than Burns intended. The melody Mr. Thomson selected was known as, "I Fee'd a Lad at Martinmas," otherwise known as, "The Miller's Wedding," that melody being what we now hear on New Year's Eve. We have elected to ignore Mr. Thomson's recommendation and use the original tune Burns wanted. You will hear similarities to the familiar modern version, and we hope you hear the subtle differences that make it unique.5

Auld Lang Syne

Should auld acquaintance be forgot,
And never brought to mind?
Should auld acquaintance be forgot,
And auld lang syne*!    (old memories, days gone by)

Chorus: For auld lang syne, my jo*,     (my dear)
For auld lang syne.
We'll tak a cup o' kindness yet,
For auld lang syne.

And surely ye'll be your pint stowp*!     (three imperial pints)
And surely I'll be mine!
And we'll tak a cup o'kindness yet,
For auld lang syne.

We twa hae* run aboot the braes,     (two have)
And pou'd the gowans* fine;     (pulled the daisys)
But we've wander'd mony a weary fit,
Sin' auld lang syne.

We twa hae paidl'd* in the burn*     (paddled) (stream)
Frae* morning sun till dine;     (from)
But seas between us braid hae* roar'd     (broad have)
Sin'* auld lang syne.     (since)

Apples in Winter / The Humors of Winter / I Saw Three Ships ~ "Apples in Winter" is one of over a hundred tunes attributed to the 18th-century composer Walker "Piper" Jackson from County Limerick (d.1798). 1 20 "Humors of Winter" is a melody dating to at least the latter part of the 19th century, finding residency in several collections of traditional music under many different titles. It was included in O'Neill's Music of Ireland (1903) and, as popular tunes are wont to do, it has gathered several other titles over the decades, one of which, oddly enough, is "Apples in Winter." "I Saw Three Ships" is a song that has sparked discussion from many sources. The music was published in 1666, but versions of the carol did not appear in print until 1833, and it is very closely related to another 18th century carol "As I Sat on a Sunny Bank." The melody is catchy and bright, but the words invite debate. The three ships have been seen as symbols for many things over the years. Some see the three wise men, some the virtues of faith, hope and charity, some see Mary, Joseph and Jesus, while some see the Trinity. Bethlehem is nowhere near a body of water large enough to support sailing vessels, raising the question of seeing the threes ships in the song. Cecil Sharp, the famous collector of folk songs, theorized that the inhabitants of Great Britain in the 18th century knew Bethlehem through hearsay and stories and may have imagined it to be located on or near the coastal region of the Holy Land. In any case, as the folklorist William Studwell said in The Christmas Carol Reader, "Like so many other Christmas songs analysis must be ignored, and idiosyncrasies overlooked so that we can enjoy the fun of singing this pleasurable piece on Christmas Day in the morning or any other time."

I Saw Three Ships

As I sat on a sunny bank
On Christmas day, on Christmas day.
I saw three ships come sailing by,
On Christmas day in the morning.

And what was in these ships all three?
On Christmas day, on Christmas day,
Our savior Christ and His lady,
On Christmas day in the morning.

He did whistle and she did sing,
On Christmas day, on Christmas day.
Great joy to all the world they'll bring,
On Christmas day in the morning.

Pray whither sailed these all three,
On Christmas day, on Christmas day,
On they sailed to Bethlehem,
On Christmas day in the morning.

And all the bells on earth did ring,
On Christmas day, On Christmas day,
And all the Angels in Heaven did sing,
On Christmas day in the morning.

And all the souls on earth did sing,
On Christmas day, on Christmas day,
Then let us all rejoice, Amen,
On Christmas day in the morning.

Huron Carol ~ This haunting song was the first Christmas carol written in the New World. Father Jean de Brebeuf was a Jesuit missionary living with the Huron people in what is now Canada during the 1630s and 40s. Having been unable to teach the Huron people the existing Latin hymns, Father Brebeuf wrote this carol in their own language, using an older French carol tune "Une Juene Pucelle." It has since been translated into both French and English. The version we are using was translated by Father Kierans S.J. (Society of Jesus).11

Huron Carol

Let Christian men take heart today
The devil's rule is done;
Let no man heed the devil more,
For Jesus Christ is come
But hear ye all what angels sing:
How Mary Maid bare Jesus King.
Jesu est ne. Jesus is born.
In excelsis gloria!

Three chieftains saw before Noel
A star as bright as day,
"So fair a sign," the chieftains said,
"Shall lead us where it may."
For Jesu told the chieftains three:
"The star will bring you here to me."
Jesu est ne. Jesus is born.
In excelsis gloria!

The chieftains gave him gold and all,
When Jesu they did see;
And told Him tales of near and far
With joy and courtesie,
Now, come ye all, sing Jesukin,
Who hears the prayers of holy men.
Jesu est ne. Jesus is born.
In excelsis gloria!

Coventry Carol / Christ Child's Lullaby ~ The earliest English language carols come to us from the mystery plays of the 15th century. These were pageants presented by tradesmen's guilds which re-enacted biblical Christmas scenes and stories. These plays were the beginning of a more secular Christmas tradition, for they were written in English and performed on the street, as opposed to the Latin church pageants that were done as part of the liturgy. "Coventry Carol" was originally part of the Pageant of the Shearmen and Tailors in Coventry. The play enacted the story of the Slaughter of the Innocents and this carol was sung by the women of Bethlehem just before Herod's soldiers came on stage to take their children. "Christ Child's Lullaby" ("Taladh Chriosda")is a traditional Scottish carol from the Hebrides.

Coventry Carol

Lully, lullay, Thou little tiny Child,
By, by, lully, lullay.

O sisters too, what may we do,
For to preserve this day
This poor Youngling for Whom we sing
By, by, lully, lullay.
Lully, lullay, Thou little tiny Child,
By, by, lully, lullay.

Herod the king, in his raging,
Charged he hath this day
His men of might, in his own sight,
All children young to slay.
Lully, lullay, Thou little tiny Child,
By, by, lully, lullay.

Then woe is me, poor Child for Thee!
And ever mourn and say
For Thy parting nor say nor sing,
By, by, lully, lullay.
Lully, lullay, Thou little tiny Child,
By, by, lully, lullay.

Gloucester Wassail ~ The word "wassail" comes from an Old English term, "Waes hael," meaning "good health." Though the first mention in print of wassailing was in 1140, some historians believe the custom is much older than that, possibly into the 5th century. There are many references to a variety of recipes for the punch in the wassail bowl, some having wine, some having ale and others having combinations of other spirits. The recipes are as varied as the reasons for the custom and how it is observed. Some practiced the wassail simply to celebrate the Christmas season while others saw it as a toast to the harvest and a hope for a good crop next year. Some were polite and orderly as they vocally visited neighbors and friends, while others sampled a bit too much of their own concoction and the event turned into a rowdy home invasion. Today, whether carolers are heard at churches, shopping malls, or serenading neighborhoods, "Gloucester Wassail" remains a favorite.

Gloucester Wassail

Chorus:
Wassail, Wassail, all over the town,
Our bread it is white and our ale it is brown,
Our bowl it is made of the white maple tree,
With Wassailing bowl we'll drink to thee.

Here's a health to the ox and to his right eye,
Pray God send our master a good Christmas pie,
A good Christmas pie that we may all see
With Wassailing bowl we'll drink to thee.

Here's a health to the cow and to her long tail,
Pray God send our master a good cask of ale,
A good cask of ale that we may all see,
With Wassailing bowl we'll drink to thee.

Come butler come fill us a bowl of the best,
I hope that your soul in heaven may rest,
But if you do bring us a bowl of the small,
May the Devil take butler, bowl and all!

Then here's to the maid in the lily white smock,
Who tripp'd to the door and slipp'd back the lock,
Who tripp'd to the door and pull'd back the pin,
And let these poor jolly Wassailers in.

Breakin' Up Christmas / Cold Frosty Morning ~ These are two tunes from the old-time mountain repertoire. The first tune refers to a Christmas tradition of meeting at different houses each evening for food, drink, music, and dancing from the week before modern Christmas (December 25th) through the date of Old Christmas (January 6th). The term and tune title, "Breakin' Up Christmas," more particularly refers to the last dance at Christmas, or the end of Christmas festivities. Tom Carter and Blanton Owen of the Fuzzy Mountain String Band quoted an 82-year old Virginia fiddler on the origin of the title. "Through this country here, they'd go from house to house almost - have a dance at one house, then go off to the next one the following night and all such as that. The week before Christmas and the week after, that's when the big time was. About a two-week period, usually winding up about New Year. I wasn't into any of this, but used to laugh about it. They'd play a tune called BREAKIN' UP CHRISTMAS that was the last dance they'd have on Christmas. There's an old feller by the name of Bozwell, he'd cry every time." 12  "Cold Frosty Morning" comes from the repertoire of Virginia old-time fiddler Henry Reed and was collected by musician and ethnomusicologist Alan Jabbour.

Cradle Hymn ~ The text for this lullaby comes from a poem written by Isaac Watts in 1715. Watts later set the words to music, as did several other notable composers, including J.S. Bach and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. This particular pairing of words and melody was first collected from the singing of Kentucky mountain peoples by Jean Thomas in the 1930s, which sets Watts' words to an old shape-note hymn tune, "Restoration."23 25

Cradle Hymn

Hush, my babe, lie still and slumber,
Holy angels guard thy bed,
Heav'nly blessings without number,
Gently falling on thy head.

How much better thou art attended,
Than the Son of God could be,
When from heaven He descended,
And became a child like thee!

Soft and easy is thy cradle,
Coarse and hard thy Savior lay:
When His birthplace was a stable,
And His softest bed was hay.

May'st thou learn to know and fear Him,
Love and serve Him all thy days;
Then to dwell forever near Him,
Tell His love and sing His praise.

Hush, my babe, lie still and slumber,
Holy angels guard thy bed,
Heav'nly blessings without number,
Gently falling on thy head.

Marche De Turenne / Pat-a-Pan / Good King Wenceslas / Ding Dong Merrily on High ~ Caroling was discouraged during the English Reformation, and Christmas was entirely outlawed during the reign of Oliver Cromwell. As one would expect, the English still celebrated the holiday in secret all over the country, more so in rural areas. These bans did have an effect, however, which is still reflected in the predominance of French and German carols present in the repertoire. While the English were protesting in public and celebrating in private, the rest of Europe continued to celebrate the season and write new Christmas hymns and carols. This set is an example of several French tunes that were eventually drafted into the English carol repertoire. "Marche De Turenne" ("La Marche des Rois Mages") dates back at least to 13th century France when the fervor of the crusades was sweeping Europe. The French reserve a separate holiday for the three kings, Le Fete des Rois, celebrated on January 6th. While this tune may even pre-date the crusades, it is likely then that the images of the ancient wise men and contemporary crusading nobles were combined. The tune became more widely known after Georges Bizet used it as incidental music in his opera "L'Arlesienne." "Pat-a-Pan" was written by Bernard de la Monnoye (1641-1728), a scholar and composer from Burgundian region. In 1701, he published a collection of carols based on local folk melodies and dialects. This dance-like carol features Guillo and Robin, stock characters in French folksong who are used to suggest the idea of the whole village or community. "Good King Wenceslas" and "Ding Dong Merrily on High" are both examples of the French Renaissance branle, a quick, rhythmic dance which the English translated as "brawl." Wenceslas was originally a Spring time dance "Tempus adest floridum" ("Spring Has Now Unwrapped the Flowers"). The modern words were added in the mid-19th century by John Mason Neale (1818-1866) based on the legends of a historic Bohemian Duke Vaclav (925-929). Vaclav's piety and philanthropy did not save him from being assassinated, but did get him honored (posthumously) as the patron saint of Bohemia. "Ding-Dong Merrily on High" comes from Orchesographie, a collection of dance tunes written in 1589 by Jehan Tabourot under the pseudonym Thoinot Arbeau. The tune was originally titled "Branle l'Officiel." The English title and words were imposed early in the 20th century by George Ratcliffe Woodward (1848-1934).
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Works Cited

1.  Breathnach, Breandan. "Piper Jackson." Irish folk music studies. v. 2 (1974-75) 41-57.

2.  Burns Country Website. Sept. 2002

3.  Cooke, Peter. The fiddle tradition of the Shetland Isles. London: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

4.  DeSimone, David. "Another Look at Christmas in the Eighteenth Century." The Colonial Williamsburg Interpreter 16:4 (Winter 1995-96) www.history.org/Almanack/life/xmas/xmasqa.cfm

5.  Dick, James Chalmers, 1838-1907. "Auld lang syne, its origin, poetry, and music." Communicated by Alexander Wood Inglis, Fellow of the Society of Antiquries, Scotland. Electric Scotland Historical Articles April 2006
www.electricscotland.com/history/articles/index.htm

6.  Digital Tradition. September 2002.

7.  Double, Gilbert H. The Saints of Cornwall. Oxford: Holywell Press, 1964.

8.  Dreamer, Percy, Ralph Vaughan Williams, and Martin Shaw. The Oxford book of carols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1964.

9.  Dyer, T. F. Thiselton. British popular customs. London : G. Bell, 1911.

10. Fiddler's Companion. Vers 2.0. Compiled and edited by Andrew Kuntz. Nov. 2000. www.ibiblio.org/fiddlers/index.html

11. "Canadian saint wrote the Huron carol." First Nations Legacy on the Rouge December 2005.

12. Fuzzy Mountain String Band. Old Originals: old-time instrumental music recently recorded in North Carolina and Virginia, Vol. I. Somerville, MA.: Rounder Records, p1978.

13. Goodwin, Mary R. M. Christmas in Colonial Virginia. Unpublished report for the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. 1955.

14. The Hymns and Carols of Christmas. Edited by Douglas D. Anderson. 1996-2002. www.hymnsandcarolsofchristmas.com

15. Keller, Robert M. The Dancing Master, 1651-1728: An Illustrated Compendium. 2000. www.izaak.unh.edu/nhltmd/indexes/dancingmaster

16. Kopper, Philip. "A Celebration of Christmas in Music and Dance." Colonial Williamsburg Journal 12.2 (1989) 6-11.

17. Patiño, Marta. "The Puritan Ban on Christmas." TimeTravel-Britain.com December 2005.

18. Poulaille, Henry. La Grande et Belle Bible de Noels Anciens. Paris : Editions Albin Michel, 1950.

19. Powers, Emma L. "Christmas Customs." The Colonial Williamsburg Interpreter 16.4 (Winter 1995-96)
www.history.org/Almanack/life/xmas/customs.cfm

20. Shields, Hugh. Tunes of the Munster Pipers: Irish traditional music from the James Goodman manuscripts. Dublin: Irish Traditional Music Archive, 1998.

21. Simon, William L. Reader's Digest Merry Christmas Songbook. 1981.

22. Stewart, James. TuneIndex. July 1996 www.ceolas.org/tunes/TuneIndex

23. Thomas, Jean. Devil's Ditties: being stories of the Kentucky mountain people with the songs they sing. Chicago:
W. Wilber Hatfield, 1931.

24. Turner, John. "Christmas Music in Colonial Days." Colonial Williamsburg Journal 26.4 (2004): 72-74. www.history.org/foundation/journal/Christmas04/music.cfm

25. Walker, William, 1809-1875. Southern harmony and musical companion. Spartansburg, S.C., 1835.

26. Waltz, Robert B. and David G. Engle. The Traditional Ballad Index. March 15, 2006. www.csufresno.edu/folklore/BalladIndexTOC.html

 

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